INFECTIONS OF RESPIRATORY TRACTS
Due to the role which respiratory tract play in the human organism, they are mostly exposed to contacts with external environment pathogens. Infections of respiratory tracts are the fourth biggest cause of medical consultations. In everyday life, respiratory tracts are constantly exposed to direct contact with pathogenic organisms, which exist in the air we breathe. The air breathed in through mouth or nose flows through throat, trachea and bronchia to alveoli. In good health condition, a human organism can independently develop a barrier against pathogenic organisms. In favorable conditions, however, such as in case of general weakening or organism chilling and with immunity decrease, infections started by microorganisms can often develop. Infections of respiratory tracts may relate to various sections of the tracts and have different forms, from a light cold to acute forms in case of pneumonia. Infections of respiratory tracts can be divided into the following: infections of upper airways (pharyngitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, nasal sinusitis, epiglottitis and laryngitis) and infections of lower airways (bronchitis, bronchiolitis and pneumonia). These infections may be caused by various etiological factors: these are most often viruses (belonging to the families of: rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, adenoviruses, RS viruses, enteroviruses as well as parainfluenza and influenza viruses) and bacteria (Streptococcus pneumonaie, Haemophilus influenza and Mycoplasma pneumoniae). The abovementioned pathogens disturb proper operations of the respiratory tracts, frequently at a level requiring hospital treatment. In extreme cases, such infections may even lead to death, especially in case of people with low immunity levels (e.g. neonates) or if the proper treatment is started too late.
That is why, a fast, sensitive and very specific diagnostics of respiratory tract infections is important. Proper diagnosis facilitates shortening the stay in hospital, reducing costs of treatment and avoiding unnecessary antibiotic treatment.
Genetic diagnostics of respiratory tract infections detects pathogenic factors at a very early stage of disease development. It is possible, then, to apply specific treatment very fast. Numerical marking also monitors the progress and effectiveness of the applied treatment.